This paper was prepared for the Congressional Program Conference, "Transforming America’s Education Through Innovation and Technology," held August 16-21, 2010. The Aspen Institute Congressional Program, established in 1983 by former U.S. Senator Dick Clark, is a nongovernmental, nonpartisan educational program for members of the United States Congress. It provides lawmakers with a stronger grasp of critical public policy issues by convening high-level conferences in which legislators are brought together with internationally-recognized academics, experts and leaders to study their ideas and to explore various policy alternatives. Political neutrality is essential to the educational mission of the program. There is no identification with a political or party viewpoint and no endorsement of specific legislation.